A technique for analyzing Mixtures by chromatography, where the stationary phase is absorbent paper. A spot of this mixture to be researched is placed near one edge of the paper and the sheet is suspended vertically in a solvent, which climbs through the newspaper by capillary action carrying the elements with it. The elements move at different rates, partially because they absorb to various extents on the cellulose and partially due to partition between the solvent and the moisture from the paper. The paper is dried and removed, and the various elements form a line of spots across the paper. It is based on the fact that paper chromatography separates compounds on the basis of the different rates of migration of filter paper cellulose. The rates of migration depend upon the solvent that is flowing down or up the newspaper and on the relative adsorption that holds the molecules more or less closely to the paper.
Colorless substances are detected by using ultraviolet Radiation or by spraying with a chemical that reacts to provide a colored spot e.g. ninhydrin provides a blue coloration with amino acids. The components can be recognized by the space they move in a particular time. Paper chromatography is the art of working with an absorbent piece of paper to examine the behavior of chemical substances in a variety of solvents. Small amounts of these substances to be analyzed are placed equidistant from one another at pen points on a line parallel to and about an inch from a border of a square or rectangular sheet of paper. Selected solvents are then caused to consume through the paper’s edge. Since the solvent comes in contact with the paper’s edge and moves beyond the points where the substances are implemented, a graphic picture is produced showing the effect of the solvent on the test materials.
It occurred to us that this is the kind of information needed to Supplement the lab and field tests currently employed to assess the Effectiveness of the various treating chemicals used in the oil industry. For Example, if compounds which give outstanding performance in test Evaluations are used as controls, the similarity or dissimilarity in behavior of Samples of different substances or different lots of the exact same chemical, when tested on the Paper Chromatography, can be interpreted as evidence for or against the Likeliness of their acting similarly. Care might thus be fruitfully Directed toward the evaluation of goods that are significantly different in chemical properties. Procedures which bring Paper chromatography within the range of the typical oil field laboratory were Found helpful in obtaining and recording information required for the solution Of such oil field issues as the choice of substances for the control of Corrosion, prevention of oil-water emulsions, recovery of petroleum from sludges and scale deposits. Studies of the mobility in a variety of solvents permit identification and separation of chemical entities and choice of these having more useful properties under field conditions.